Tourism and travel have been with us since time immemorial. However, with the onset of the industrial age and the use of railways, ships, motorcars, and aeroplanes, travelling possibilities—for both business and pleasure, domestic and international—were transformed. The annals of the
United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) provide us with unmatched insights into this fascinating story, yet these archives have never been exhaustively exploited.
The History of the World Tourism Organization takes us on a unique journey to explain how tourism has burgeoned between the early twentieth century and now. Drawing on the UNWTO’s regularly published tourism statistics, this book provides comprehensive discussions of the consequences of an
unhindered flow of tourists; the consequent protection of natural assets; the safeguarding of tourism resources; how frontier formalities affect this sector; how tourism impacts on world trade; and the promotion of tourism to countries in economic decline. Collectively, these investigations offer an
impartial understanding of modern tourism and its effects.
This definitive overview of this major intergovernmental organization is a must-read for students and scholars of tourism and hospitality, and it is of interest to anyone concerned with the past, present, and future of this ever-evolving and fundamentally human practice.
As China has shifted from a planned to a market-oriented economy, it has adjusted its energy policies accordingly. As a result, the Chinese energy industry has now gone through more than seventy years of transformation. Yet to date no single work has sought to assess the key factors driving these
changes and their effects on China’s energy security, even though such questions have implications for assessments of the world’s energy security.
Energy Security in Times of Economic Transition addresses this gap. Juxtaposing a domestic perspective with a wider, pan-energy-industry view, Yao Lixia explores trends in the evolution of China’s energy policy since its inception in 1949 and discusses the relations between policy changes and
macroeconomic reforms. Then, by employing a new, ground-breaking quantitative framework for evaluating energy security, Yao crucially shows that macroeconomic reform did not improve China’s energy security over the first three decades of the reform period but in fact restricted China from
developing more effective energy policies. This insight ultimately suggests lines of inquiry that can be extended to research in other countries, especially those in the midst of economic transition.
For its detailed history of China’s energy policy and its novel, widely applicable methodology for evaluating energy security, this book is a must-read for researchers and postgraduate students in economics, security studies, political economy, and international political economy.
Despite different legal and constitutional arrangements, in many states across Europe, public leaders are forging new collaborative relationships with non-state and civic actors to seek innovative ways of providing public services. Leadership varies between situations and contexts, but is still seen
as central to good governance and includes individuals who will promote institutional adaptations in the public interest. There are almost as many definitions of leadership as there are writers on the subject, as it is a complex social phenomenon, lacking clear boundaries. This volume questions
'what are the changing dynamics of public leadership across different European settings?' Anglo-American models of leadership have dominated and influenced current thinking. Chapters in this volume highlight emergent thinking and discussions on the strengths and weaknesses of current understandings
and knowledge. Authors investigate the tensions between Anglo-American and economic focused models of leadership and emergent policy and management paradigms that may challenge received wisdom.
This volume reflects on the global dimension of the 2008 banking and financial crisis and point to a bigger and deeper crisis of authority and legitimacy for public managers. The peak of the crisis might be passing but the crisis for civil society and civic institutions of governance and leadership
is far from over. The long term implications of these crises for governance, political and civic institutions are hard to be precise about. However, we can observe how across a number of nation states and supra national relationships (from the European Union to the IMF) are institutions and those
who lead, manage or hold them to account in crisis too. The broad group of scholars and academics examine key conceptual and theoretical ideas in contemporary international public management and explore: What are the implications of these developments for city managers and local political leaders
(from elected mayors to NGO leaders and activists) ? Is coalition and consensus building possible in a time of uncertainty and change? And, finally, what are the implications for those who seek to manage or administer public services in this time of crisis?
Britain is one of the world's richest countries, and yet the divide between rich and poor has never been starker, with some reports suggesting that as many as one in five in the UK live in poverty. This book, written by leading expert in inequality issues, Tracy Shildrick, provides a clear and
up-to-date account of the causes of poverty in Britain today, examining the two principal causes: low paid and insecure employment, and an inadequate benefits system, particularly for those out of work.
Yet these simple facts fly in the face of conventional popular and political wisdom that currently dominates the debate on poverty. The media in particular reinforce simple and 'common-sense' explanations of poverty at the expense of a more complex, but more accurate account. They focus on
individuals and individual behaviours, rather than discussing poverty as a condition that affects significant swathes of the population, or as something brought about by factors beyond the individual's control.
This important and timely book get to the core of Britain's poverty problem and shows how social structures, and political and policy decisions, not the behaviour of individuals, are at the heart of the problem.
New Zealand (NZ) is widely regarded as being at the frontier of public policy reforms and public governance innovations. Bringing together acclaimed scholars and practitioners from NZ, including those who have led reforms, this edited collection examines the evolution of public policy in NZ. Through
focusing on four areas of NZ's strength in public policy governance and management - managing and governing the economy, governing the natural environment, the effectiveness and management of the public service, and the advancement of minority populations - the authors highlight specific challenges,
contexts and responses, with an emphasis on contemporary matters such as wellbeing, sustainability and fiscal responsibility. The authors discuss practices for developing innovative public policy and governance, discuss public governance reforms in detail and examine the use of innovative public
management and e-government practices. Through the analysis of specific policies and management tools, this title offers an assessment of the impact of policies and their implementation. This book will appeal to scholars, practitioners, policy advisors and consultants in national and international
organizations who are interested in, or involved with, cutting-edge, innovative public policy and governance strategies.
With the introduction of new market-oriented approaches to infrastructure finance policy decision-making in the national and subnational public sectors, there is a greater emphasis on the need for resource efficiency in the delivery of public services. There is also a critical need to evaluate and
assess the effectiveness of infrastructure finance policy implementation. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) bring an agility and fresh perspective to the financing and delivery of public goods and services, and allow for a higher level of creativity, innovation, and flexibility during times of
dynamic change and high demand for responsive solutions.
By introducing a comprehensive new lens through which to view infrastructure finance policy as an instrument capable of achieving long-term national and subnational policy objectives, this study offers a unique insight into the potential benefits of the adoption of PPPs within the context of
long-term capital investment planning. Through the examination of case studies from the United States, Albania and Mauritius, the author presents a transparent and integrated analysis of the role of PPPs as a policy option within this context. By demonstrating how PPPs can be utilized as a means of
financing and delivering capital infrastructure projects within unified and comprehensive capital management and budgeting systems, this book is essential reading for researchers, policy decision-makers and students of public policy, capital budgeting and infrastructure finance.
Umesh Chandra Pandey, Chhabi Kumar, Martin Ayanore, Hany R. Shalaby
Rising inequalities are a defining challenge of our times and a crucial obstacle to the realization of the SDGs. The need to accelerate steps towards the reduction of growing disparities within and among countries is well realised.
Responding to that need, this book aims to understand the types, drivers, consequences and impact of inequalities in broad contexts across groups and individuals, as well as societies and states. Defining inequality as the social, economic and political challenges of our time, the authors examine
SDG10 to look ahead at how policy action might engage multiple stakeholders, involve diverse sectors and address gaps between policy and implementation to tackle inequalities and facilitate the advancement of the SDG agenda.
Federica Doni, Andrea Gasperini, Joo Torres Soares
SDG 13 aims to ‘take urgent action to combat climate change and its impact’. This book demonstrates the potential for innovation in implementing SDG13 despite its associated challenges. The book features global success stories and uses empirical and science-based analysis to explore a
wide range of practical implementation mechanisms, enabling conditions, and monitoring and reporting tools.
Concise Guides to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals comprises 17 short books, each examining one of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The series provides an integrated assessment of the SDGs from economic, legal, social, environmental and cultural perspectives.
This book contributes important new insights into how deployment on international military missions affects soldiers and their lives. Using both quantitative data and in-depth interviews, the authors provide a longitudinal perspective covering the participants in these missions before, during, and
after deployment on a large range of life outcomes. The research centres around four key themes; who are the men and women who choose to be deployed; why do they choose to be deployed; what challenges do these soldiers face before, during, and after returning home from a mission; and what are the
consequences of deployment for the soldiers’ individual lives?
Danish soldiers provide an illustrative study and data is drawn from administrative registries and is supplemented with broader surveys of present and former soldiers, in-depth interviews of parents and other relatives, and support group professionals.
Using specifically constructed datasets and comparing these soldiers with relevant control groups, this book offers a unique analysis of the impact of deployment on important issues such as personal finances, the labour market, criminal activity, smoking and drinking, and overall health. Mapping a
full portrait of the men and women who choose to be deployed, and explaining both their initial motivations, this book highlights the challenges they face before and during deployment and upon returning home.